Haitian Revolution

The Haitian Revolution influenced by slave uprising in 1789-1803 has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. It transformed French "Saint Domingue" into an independent state run by former slaves and the descendants of slaves. "Saint Domingue" was one of the most productive European colonies during that period. The revolt occurred when slavery was an accepted practice and the Atlantic slave trade was at its peak. The revolt of black African slaves started in August 1791 and ended when the French were defeated at the battle of Vertieres in November 1803.

The Haitian revolution of slaves provoked fears in the United States and the colonies surrounding Haiti and the Caribbean.

The main events that happened during this revolution till independence is stated here in a chronological manner: French Revolution started in 1789 and a general assembly of the Estates-General was called; an uprising in the northern plain of Haiti against the planters began on 21st August 1791; The war between France versus Britain and Spain began in the spring of 1793; Emancipation was decreed in August 1793 and February 1794; Toussaint L'Ouverture changed side in the Spring of 1793 and made force with mostly of former slaves (L'Ouverture was a self-educated former domestic slave, initially fought for the Spanish crown but when British invaded Saint-Domingue, he decided to fight for the French on the belief that they would free all the slaves); British occupation 1793-98; Toussaint’s defeated a British expeditionary force in 1798; War between Toussaint and André Rigaud 1799-1800; Toussaint invaded neighboring Santo Domingo in December 1800 and freed the slaves there on 3rd January, 1801. Toussaint made a constitution in July 1801 which made him governor for life. Napoleon Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, General Charles Leclerc to restore both French rule and slavery; Toussaint was captured and deported to France. He died there in 1803; Jean-Jacques Dessalines one of Toussaint's General led the revolutionaries at the Battle of Vertieres on November 18, 1803 and defeated French; & On January 1, 1804, Dessalines declared independence.